INCOTERMS 2020: Incoterms (Denumirea oficială „Incoterms 2020”) este standardul la nivel mondial pentru comerțul internațional. Aceste condiții se referă la responsabilitatea pentru bunurile atât cumpărător și vânzător în diferitele etape ale procesul de transport. Incoterms sunt la nivel mondial acceptate și utilizate de către guverne, Autoritățile judiciare și comercianți în tranzacțiile comerciale internaționale. Pe oferta / comanda, veți găsi ceea ce este aplicabil Incoterm.
EXW Ex Works
Theseller/exportermakes the goods available to the buyer in their own warehouse and is only responsible for packing the goods.
Thebuyer/importertherefore bears all of the costs and responsibilities from the moment the goods cross the warehouse prior to loading. Insurance is not mandatory but should it be required it would be taken out by the buyer as they bear the risk.
This Incoterm should not be used if the seller hands the goods over anywhere other than their own premises.
FCA Free Carrier
Thesellerdelivers the goods to an agreed place and bears the costs and risks up to the point of delivery of those goods at the agreed place, including the cost of export clearance. The seller is responsible for inland transport and export customs clearance unless the designated place is the seller’s premises (FCA warehouse), in which case the goods are delivered there and loaded onto the means of transport arranged by the buyer at the buyer’s expense.
Thebuyerbears the costs from loading on board to unloading, including insurance if taken out because they bear the risk when the goods are loaded onto the first means of transport.
Newfor FCA, with respect to Incoterms 2010, is that in shipping the buyer can ask their carrier to issue a Bill of Lading to the seller specifying “on board” as proof of delivery of the goods, thus facilitating the use of documentary credits. The credit is afforded to the seller by bank guarantee although they are not party to the contract of carriage.
FAS Free Alongside Ship
Thesellerdelivers the goods to the port of origin loading dock and bears the costs up to delivery as well as being responsible for export customs procedures.
Thebuyeris responsible for loading on board, stowage, freight and other costs up to delivery at destination, including import clearance and insurance, if taken out as it is not mandatory. The buyer also bears the risk once the goods are in the loading dock prior to being loaded onto the ship.
This Incoterm is only valid for shipping and is generally used for special goods that have particular loading requirements, not usually for palletised cargo or containers.
FOB Free On Board
Thesellerbears the costs until the goods are loaded onto the ship, at which point the risks are transferred as well as responsibility for export clearance and costs at origin. The seller also arranges the transport although the buyer bears the cost.
Thebuyeris responsible for the cost of freight, unloading, import clearance and delivery at destination as well as insurance should they take it out. The transfer of risk occurs when the goods are on board.
This Incoterm is only used for shipping. It should not be used for goods in containers because responsibility is transferred when goods are loaded on board the ship (the goods are in physical contact with the ship’s deck) and containers are not loaded on entering the terminal, therefore, if the goods were to suffer any damage inside the container it would be very difficult to establish when the damage occurred.
CFR Cost and Freight
Theselleris responsible for all costs until the goods arrive at the destination port, including export clearance, costs at origin, freight and usually unloading costs.
Thebuyeris responsible for import procedures and transport to destination. They also bear the risks from the moment the goods are on board, hence, although it is not mandatory the buyer usually takes out insurance.
This Incoterm is only used in shipping.
CIF Cost, Asigurare si fret
As with CFR thesellerbears all the costs up to arrival at the destination port, including export clearance, costs at origin, freight and usually unloading. However, unlike CFR, the seller must also arrange insurance even though the risks transfer to the buyer once the goods are loaded on board.
Thebuyerbears the import and transport to destination costs.
Newin the 2020 version of this Incoterm is that the seller must arrange insurance cover in line with what is stipulated in Institute Cargo Clauses (C). In other words, the goods must be covered until their arrival at the destination port. This Incoterm is only used in shipping. It is widely used as it determines the customs value.
CPT Carriage Paid To
Thesellerbears the costs until the goods are delivered to an agreed place, i.e., they are responsible for all of the costs at origin, export clearance, the main transport and usually, costs at destination.
Thebuyeris responsible for import procedures and insurance if taken out as it is not mandatory. The risk is transferred to the buyer once the goods are loaded onto the first means of transport arranged by the seller.
This Incoterm is valid for any means of transport.
CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To
Thesellerbears the costs up to delivery at an agreed place at destination, i.e., the costs at origin, export clearance, freight and also insurance which is mandatory.
Theimporteris responsible for import clearance and delivery at destination and takes on the risk when the goods are loaded onto the first means of transport.
What isnewin this Incoterm with respect to Incoterms 2010 again relates to insurance cover. In this instance, apart from being mandatory, insurance must contain the same coverage as what is stipulated in Institute Cargo Clauses (A), the goods must be insured until their delivery to the carrier at destination.
DPU Delivered at place Unloaded
Thesellerbears the costs and risks arising at origin, packing, loading, export clearance, freight, unloading at destination and delivery at the agreed point.
Thebuyeris responsible for import clearance procedures.
This Incoterm isnewand replaces DAT. In effect, it increases delivery options since DAT stated that delivery must take place at the terminal, whereas with the new DPU delivery can take place at an agreed place other than the terminal.
DAP Delivered At Place
Thesellerbears all the costs and risks of the operation apart from import clearance and unloading at destination, i.e., all costs at origin, freight and inland transport.
Thebuyeris only responsible for import clearance and unloading.
This Incoterm is valid for all means of transport. Insurance is not mandatory but if taken out the seller bears the cost.
DDP Delivered Duty Paid
Thesellerbears all costs and risks from packing and checking in their warehouses to delivery at final destination, including export and import clearance, freight and insurance, if taken out.
Thebuyeronly has to receive the goods and usually unloads them, although this can also be done by the seller.
This Incoterm is the exact opposite of EXW, the seller bears all the costs and risks.
Pasiunea noastra este de a echipa cu clienții noștri pentru a căuta soluții care ne ajută să ne tot pentru a crește bara data viitoare în jurul valorii de. Combinarea cunoaștere a pieței cu resurse financiare, livram opțiuni flexibile pentru toata gama de produse alimentare.
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